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Knowledge and Training for Financial Decision Making!

MULTIPLES offers aggregated and sector industry multiples to value companies compared to their industry.

Current Data (for basic and premium member) and Data Archive as of 2007 (only for premium member) :

  • EV/EBIT multiples *
  • EV/Sales multiples *
  • EV/EBITDA multiples *
  • P/E– ratios *
  • Price/Sales multiples *

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Comparative valuation by the multiple method has to meet some essential requirements: (1) transparency in the data source, (2) consistent definitions of capital market data and earnings figures, and (3) traceability of calculation methods. Multiples available on fully meet this standard.

Raw data are taken from Refinitiv Eikon at 15.07.2023 and tables have been calculated by the Chair of Financial Management @ HHL (Prof. Dr. Bernhard Schwetzler). The data have been carefully extracted and calculated; though no liability can be taken for their correctness.

Firms displaying a negative multiple have been excluded from the calculation of the aggregated sector multiples. Sector composition has been adapted from the official industry allocation in the Deutschen Börse AG´s prime standard. Earnings estimate for forward-multiples have been derived by I/B/E/S for the current business year. Outliers have been eliminated to get meaningful industry multiples using 5%-quantile as the upper limit for exclusion the cut-off values.

Please note: Due to a change in index composition by Deutsche Börse AG some definitions for variables have been changed by date of Oct. 15th 2020. Firms are now taken from DAX Sector All (as compared to DAX Sector before the change), resulting in an increased number of firms per sector. For the beta estimates correspondingly the German CDAX is used as a proxy for the market portfolio. Debt and net debt figures are taken from the most recent available balance sheet data (as compared to the most recent end of year data). Thus multiples and beta estimates from Q4 2020 on cannot directly be compared against the corresponding figures from quarters before Q4 2020. We decided to re-calculate and publish the corresponding figures for Q2 and Q3 2020 also under the new definitions in order to allow a comparison over time.

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